Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Mucuna pruriens, Semecarpus anacardium, Anethum graveolens by Agar Disc Diffusion Method

 

Sanjay R Patel*, Ashok P Suthar, Anand M Shah, Hitesh V Hirpara, Vishal D Joshi and Mayur V Katheria

KNV Pharmacy College , Metoda, Rajkot, Gujarat, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sanjay_master20@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The investigation is aimed to bring out the antimicrobial actions of the methanol extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds, Semecarpus anacardium nuts, Anethum graveolens fruits. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method against various gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria. The zone of inhibition of methanolic extract of Mucana pruriens against Bacillus subtilis MTTC 121 (24 mm, 22 mm, 17mm, 14 mm, 10 mm), Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (20 mm, 16 mm, 13 mm, 10 mm, 8 mm), and Escherichia coli MTCC 521 (19 mm, 16 mm, 14 mm, 12 mm, 7 mm) at 10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml respectively. The zone of inhibition of methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium against Bacillus subtilis MTTC 121 (11 mm, 9 mm, 8 mm, none, none), Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (8 mm, 7 mm, none, none, none), and Escherichia coli MTCC 521 (8 mm, none, none, none, none) at 10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml respectively. The zone of inhibition of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens against Bacillus subtilis MTTC 121 (24 mm, 21 mm, 16 mm, 12 mm, 8 mm), Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (18 mm, 15 mm, 12 mm, 9 mm, none), and Escherichia coli MTCC 521 (25 mm, 21 mm, 16 mm, 12 mm, 8 mm) at 10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml respectively. The results obtained within these study shows that Mucana pruriens extract can be a potential source of natural antimicrobial agent than the nuts of Semecarpus anacardium. The fruit of Anethum graveolens has linked similar exploit as per Mucuna pruriens.

 

KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Mucuna pruriens, Semecarpus anacardium, Anethum graveolens, Agar diffusion. 

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Since many decades, humans have got much vital profit from natural plants1. Conventional herbal treatment has been extensively used by the human being for the dealing of a variety of infectious diseases2. Earlier investigate studies recommend that high using up of fruits and vegetables is concern with lower risk of diseases3-5. Plants from the tropical and subtropical climates have also been linked with many imperative therapeutic properties. Many of these plants are taken as remedies for coughs, intestinal bleeding, diarrhea and other human ailments6. Plant extracts are now in the main considered as valuable medicines in current pharmacy. It is consequently essential and critical to fight against emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases with an outlook to find out and discover new agents of superior therapeutic activity7.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Collection of samples:

The Nuts of Semecarpus anacardium, seeds of Mucana pruiens, and fruits of Anethum graveolens were collected from Hakeem Chichi Sons, Hakeem Chichi Street, Rani Talao, Surat, Gujarat, India. All parts of plants were identified at Department of Biological Sciences; Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat by Dr. Minoobhai Parabia and Dr. Ritesh Vaidh.

 

Preparation of plant extracts:

Mucuna pruriens:

The seeds were dehydrated beneath shade and made to a fine powder using a laboratory mill. The seed powder of 3 g was soaked with 10 ml of petroleum benzene at 60-80°C, followed by methanolic extraction was carried out by simple percolation method. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure at 50oC and dried in vacuum. The dried extract was obtained, used directly for the checking out of antimicrobial activity through various in vitro assays23.

 

 


Table 1: Information of some medicinal plant species of India selected for antibacterial activity.

Plant Species

Family

Common Name

Part Used

Chemical Constitute

Use

Mucuna pruriens

 

 

Leguminoseae8

 

 

 

Nescafe mucuna

 

 

 

Seeds

 

 

 

l-dopa9,10; mucunadine; mucunine; prurienidine; prurienine11

 

Purgative; aphrodisiac; diuretic; Anti Parkinson’s activity 12-,16

 

 

Semecarpus anacardium

 

 

Anacardiaceae

 

 

 

Marking Nut

 

 

 

Seeds

 

 

 

Bhilwanol; jeediflavone; semecarpuflavone and

Gulluflavone17 Anacardic acid

 

Rheumatism; asthma; epilepsy; nervous debility  tumors

 

 

Anethum graveolens

Apiaceae18

 

Dill

 

Fruit

 

Carvone; dihydrocarvone;       d-limonene; phellandrene19,20

Carminative; stimulant21,22

 

 

 

Table 2: Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium nut, Mucana pruriens seed, Anethum graveolens fruit by Agar disc diffusion method.

Microorganism

Inhibition zone (mm)

Semecarpus anacardium

Mucuna pruriens

Anethum graveolens

streptomycin

Conc.(mg/ml)

Conc.(mg/ml)

Conc.(mg/ml)

Conc.(mg/ml)

10

5

2.5

1

0.5

10

5

2.5

1

0.5

10

5

2.5

1

0.5

2.5

Bacillus subtilis

MTTC 121

11

9

8

-

-

24

22

17

14

10

24

21

16

12

8

18

Staphylococcus aureus

MTCC 96

8

7

-

-

-

20

16

13

10

8

18

15

12

9

-

19

Escherichia coli

MTCC 521

8

-

-

-

-

19

16

14

12

7

25

21

16

12

8

16

 

 


 

Semecarpus anacardium:

The nuts were shed dried for about 10 days and then pulverized into fine powder using pestle and mortar. The extraction was done by soxhlet extraction techniques. 2 gm of drug extracted with 10 ml methanol. The extract was evaporated to complete dryness by vacuum distillation and stored in refrigerator for further use 24.

 

Anethum graveolens:

The Anethum graveolens powder (4 g) was defatted with hexane at room temperature. Then, the residue was extracted four times with methanol at room temperature. The extract was concentrated under reduced pressure and the volume was adjusted. Aliquot was kept at -10o C for further investigation.

 

Organisms:

Staphylococcus aureus (MTTC no 96), Bacillus subtilis (MTTC no 121) and Escherichia coli (MTTC no 521).

 

Disc diffusion method:

Nutrient agar plates were inoculated with 0.1 ml each of bacterial organisms (1.5 x 107 cfu/ml) in triplicates and spread well with sterile swabs. Filter sterilized paper discs (6 mm in diameter) were soaked with 10, 5, 2.5, 1 and 0.5 mg/ml of methanolic extracts of test samples, and were aseptically placed apart from each other on each agar plate. Standard drug, streptomycin was used as positive control. The plates were incubated at 37o C for 18 - 24 h. The zones of inhibition was measured and expressed in millimeter 25.

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

The natural drugs were tested for their inhibitory activity against different organisms by measuring the zone of inhibition by agar disc diffusion method. All the drugs were

 

showing zone of inhibition, so it confirmed that they posses good inhibitory activity against the test organisms, and compared with standard drugs streptomycin.

The preliminary antibacterial screening indicated methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium, Mucuna pruriens, Anethum graveolens to be effective against the test organisms. Results of antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium, Mucuna pruriens, Anethum graveolens respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus (MTTC no 96), Bacillus subtilis (MTTC no 121) and Escherichia coli (MTTC no 521) are shown in Table no. 2.

 

CONCLUSION:

Methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium, Mucana Pruriens, Anethum graveolens were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three test organisms namely E. coli, B. subtillis and S. aureus. Especially methanolic extract of Mucana Pruriens and Anethum graveolens have good zone of inhibition against three test organisms in which two were gram negative (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtillis) and one was gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus). There should be proportionality between concentration and inhibition zone of microbial growth of antimicrobial compounds i.e. concentration of antimicrobial compound increases with increase in zone of microbial growth inhibition. So it confirmed that the extracts of Mucana pruriens and Anethum graveolens were proved to be better antimicrobial agent. The methanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium has no potential activity to inhibit the growth of microorganisms (antibacterial activity).

 

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Received on 21.08.2009          Modified on 24.10.2009

Accepted on 18.11.2009         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(1): Jan. - Mar. 2010; Page 165-167