Anti-inflammatory Action of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Leaves by HRBC Membrane Stabilization


Ravi Rajurkar, Ritesh Jain*, Narendra Matake, Prshant Aswar and SS Khadbadi

Government College of Pharmacy, Near Kathora Naka Road, Amravati-444604

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



The ethanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (Malvaceae) known in Hindi as Atibala,were screened for anti-inflammatory activity.The dried powdered  drug was successively extracted with several solvents and out of these the ethanolic,chloroform and aqueous extracts was selected for present study due to presence of several phytochemical in them.The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken a measure of anti-inflammatory activity.All Three fraction showed a biphasic effect on the membrane stabilization.Their activities are comparable to that of standard drug diclofenac sodium.However their activities decreased with time.


KEYWORDS: Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, anti-inflammatory, HRBC



Since the time in immemorial,our traditional system of medicine and folklore claiming that medicinal plants as a whole or their parts are being used in all types of skin diseases successfully including antibacterial and antifungal.As we know very well,now a days the medicinal preparation available in the market from which most of them either not effective up to the mark or has to develop resistance resulting in reoccurrence again.Plant derived drug serve as a prototype to develop more effective and less toxic medicines.


Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet known in Hindi as Atibala,found in the outer Himalayan tracts from Jammu to Bhutan up to an altitude of 1500m and extending through the whole of northern and central India.the extract of the whole plant Abutilon indicum were scientifically evaluated for tonic and oja vardhaka – augment ojas, the subtle essence of all vital fluids, responsible for health, harmony and spiritual growth. They are beneficial in treating gout, tuberculosis and raktapitta bleeding disorders.Phytochemical investigated of A.indicum showed the presence of amino acids, glucose, fructose and galactose have been isolated from the leaves. From the roots non – drying oil consisting of various fatty acids vix. Linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic. Lauric, myristic, caprylic, capric and unusual fatty acid having C17 carbon skeleton besides sitosterol, and amyrin from unsaponifiable matter is yielded.


A survey of literature showed that no systematic apprach has been made to study anti-inflammatory activity in this plant by in-vitro method.The present study is an attemot to study the anti-inflammatory activity of A.indicum using ehanolic,chloroform and aqueous extracts.


Plant Material :

The leaves of A. indicum were collected from Melghat region Amravati in the month of july.the collected material was authenticated by Mrs Bhogoankar Botanist, Phd, V.M.V College Amravati .The plant was also confirmed by Dr. Giri, Forest officer Amravati.


Preparation of extract:

Dried powder of leaves was exhaustively extracted successively in soxhlet apparatus,using petroleum ether,chloroform,ethylacetate,ethanol and distilled water respectively.The extracts were then made to powder by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure.Leaves of A indicum yielded 0.62 %,0.45 %, 0.57 %, 4.5 % and 3.7 % w/w powdered extract with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate, ethanol and distilled water respectively.


Anti-inflammatory activity :

The HRBC membrane stabilization has been used as method to study the anti-inflammatory activity.Blood was collected from healthy volunteer.The collected blood was mixed with equal volume of sterilised Alsever solution (2% dextrose,0.8% sodium citrate,0.5% citric acid and 0.42% sodium chloride in water).The blood was centrifuged at 3000 rpm and packed cell were


Concentration (mg/100ml)

                       Activity (prevention of lysis %)


Ethanolic extract

Chlorofom extract   

Aqueous extract






























Data are expressed as mean + S.E.,n = 6

washed with isosaline (0.85%,pH 7.2)and a 10% (v/v) suspension was made with isosaline. The assay mixture contained the drug (concentration as mentioned in Table 1),1 ml of phosphate buffer (0.15M,pH 7.4),2ml of hyposaline (0.36%) and 0.5 ml of HRBC suspension.Diclophenac was used as reference drug . Instead of hyposaline 2 ml of distilled water was used in the control. All the assay mixture were incubated at 370C for 30 min and centrifuged.The hemoglobin content in the supernatant solution was estimated using spectrophotometer at 560 nm.The percentage hemolysis was calculate by assuming the hemolysis produced in presence of distilled water of as 100%.The percentage of haemolysis was calculated using the formula


% Haemolysis = O.D. of drug treated sample *100/ O.D. of control



The lysosomal enzymes released during inflammation produced a variety of disorders.The extracellular activity of these enzymes is said to be related to acute or chronic inflammation.The diclophenac drugs act either by inhibiting these lysosomal enzymes or by stabilizing the lysosomal membrane.


Since HRBC membrane similar to lysosomal membrane components,the prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis is taken as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity of drugs.The results are reported in Table1.All the extracts of leaves A.indicum showed biphasi effects on HRBC membrane stabilization.They increasing a activity at low concentration levels but decreasing activity with high concentration.They have a critical  concentration (50 mg/100ml) at which their activities are maximum.The activities of all extracts are comparable to that of Diclophenac at concentration of 50 mg/100ml.The variation of activity with time was studied at different concentration,the activities in general decreased with time (Table1).



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Received on 17.11.2008  Modified on 05.02.2009

Accepted on 20.03.2009  © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2(2): April.-June.2009,;Page 415-416