Analgesic, Anti–Inflammatory and Anti–Hemorrhoidal Activity of Aqueous Extract of Lantana Camara Linn

 

BK Gidwani1* Sushil Bhargava2, SP Rao2, A Majoomdar2, DP Pawar1, RN Alaspure1

1Sharad Pawar College of Pharmacy, Wanadongri, Hingna Road, Nagpur - 4411100

2Columbia institute of Pharmacy Tekari Raipur,493111

*Corresponding Author E-mail: bhargavasushil7@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant Lantana camara was examined for the analgesic (hot plate method), anti–inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema test) activities in albino rats by oral and topical routes respectively. The anti– hemorrhoidal activity was carried on patients using capsules prepared from dry aqueous extract of Lantana camara under the supervision of Chief medical officer, Department of shalya tantra Govt. Ayurvedic hospital, Nagpur.

 

KEYWORDS: Lantana camara, Anti-inflammatory activity, Hot–plate test.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) commonly known as wild / red sage is the most widespread species of this genus. The aerial parts of many species of Lantana are widely used in folk remedies like cancer and tumors. A tea prepared from the leaves and flowers were taken against fever, influenza and stomachache. The species name, Lantana camara is probably adopted from the West Indian colloquial name for the common species.  The other uses of plant show anti–malarial, anti–bacterial and anti–diarrhoeal activities. The present study was conducted to verify the analgesic, anti – inflammatory and anti–hemorrhoidal activity of aqueous extracts of Lantana camara.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Plant material:

Aerial parts of the plant Lantana camara was collected and botanically identified at    Department of Botany, Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur. Voucher specimen has been deposited at the herbarium. Specimen Voucher No. is 9101

 

Preparation of Plant extract:

The leaves of Lantana camara were air dried in shade, under normal environmental conditions and then subjected to size reduction to get coarse powder. Such powdered material was charged into the soxhlet

 

apparatus, and successively extracted with organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone, methanol, hydro alcoholic and aqueous solvents. The aqueous and hydro alcoholic extractions were done by maceration process.1

 

Further these extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening for the presence of active constituents and finally aqueous extract was used for the present work.

 

Animals:

The studies were carried out on albino rats (200 – 250g) of either sex. The animals were housed in group of five and maintained on a 12-h light: 12-h dark cycle with a standard pellet diet and clean drinking water ad libtum. Animal Ethical Committee approved the experimental protocol under guidelines of CPCSEA, New Delhi.

 

Analgesic activity:

Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Lantana camara was screened by Eddy’s hot plate method.2

 

Hot–plate test:

The hot–plate test was performed following the method of Eddy and Leimbach with, modifications. Each rat was placed singly on the hot–plate at 56 ±10C and the time for licking of the paws was recorded before, and 30 min after, the oral administration of the different extract solutions tested in two doses (300mg/kg and 500mg/kg), the vehicle (control group Propylene glycol 1ml/1oog) or the standard drug (Ibuprofen 100mg/kg).3

 

 


Table 1: Comparison of analgesic activity of Lantana camara with standard (Ibuprofen)

Sr.No

0h

           1h

           2h

% Maximum possible effect

Licking time (sec)

Jumping time (sec)

Licking time (sec)

Jumping time (sec)

Licking time (sec)

Jumping time (sec)

0h

1h

2h

Control

3.54±0.87

(0.356)

7.15±3.36

(1.37)

6.76±0.83

(0.34)

11.40±1.43

(0.58)

4.03±1.39

(0.73)

9.73±1.74

(0.74)

---

---

---

Standard

3.42±0.63

(0.254)

10.15±2.72

(1.14)

17.00±3.71

(1.51)

21.81±4.65

(1.89)

18.47±2.52

(1.03)

24.37±3.11

(1.27)

7.93

30.98

41.50

Aqueous extract (300mg/kg)

5.842±1.70

(0.846)

10.88±2.29

(0.936)

16.93±2.26

(0.900)

18.92±2.68

(1.09)

17.96±2.03

(0.82)

20.46±2.79

(1.17)

9.85

22.38

30.41

Aqueous extract (500mg/kg)

5.32±2.07

(0.847)

11.06±2.46

(1.99)

17.63±1.57

(0.64)

19.74±3.04

(1.24)

13.39±2.96

(1.211)

23.05±2.71

(1.13)

10.33

24.82

37.37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

table 2: Effect of aqueous extract of Lantana camara on anti-inflammatory activity

Compounds

Increase in rat paw oedema

Volume of oedema at 3h

% inhibition of oedema at 3h

0h Mean ± SD

1h Mean± SD

2h Mean± SD

3h Mean ±SD

Control

1.75±0.106

2.19±0.512

2.22±0.163

1.75±0.106

 

 

Standard

0.37±0.03

0.44±0.02

0.48±0.018

0.53±0.026

0.34

70.17

Aqueous extract (300mg/kg)

0,29±0.032

0.36±0.023

0.68±0.07

0.70±0.035

0.52

54.38

Aqueous extract (500mg/kg)

0.20±0.017

0.27± 0.021

0.40±0.031

0.64±0.024

0.44

61.40

 


 

Fig.1: Effect of extracts of Lantana camara on analgesic activity.

 

 

Fig.2: Effect of aqueous extract of Lantana camara on anti - inflammatory activity

 

The homogenous suspensions of extracts were prepared in propylene glycol and distill water (1:9/ml). The basal reaction time of animals on the analgesiometer at 0h, 1h, and 2h after drug administration was noted.

 

 

Anti–inflammatory activity:

The carrageenan–induced paw oedema test, an anti–inflammatory model first proposed by Winter et al. was used in the present study. Rats were numbered and a mark on lower left paw of each rat was made just beyond tibio– tarsal junction, so that every time the paw was dipped in the column up to the fixed mark to ensure constant paw volume. Initial paw volume was noted by displacement method. One group served as negative control (received normal saline), second group served as positive control (received Aspirin 10 mg/kg), while the third group served as test (received 500mg/kg of test compound). After one hour, a volume of 0.1ml of 1% saline solution of carrageenan was injected into the sub – plantar region of the rat’s left hind paw. The paw volume was further evaluated again 1, 2 and 3 h of carrageenan administration. Hind paw swelling was expressed in mm and calculated as a variation.4,5

 

Fig.3: Effect of treatment on pain

 

Table 3: Effect of treatment on pain

Follow up  weeks

Group

Mean (X)

Standard Deviation (SD)

1st week

2.826

0.388

2nd week

1.957

0.562

3rd week

1.174

0.491

4th  week

0.174

0.388

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4: Effect of treatment on itching

Follow up  weeks

Group

Mean (X)

Standard Deviation (SD)

1st week

2.13

0.757

2nd week

1.26

0.643

3rd week

0.43

0.507

4th  week

0.11

0.300

 

Anti–hemorrhoidal activity:

Anti–hemorrhoidal activity was carried out on patients using capsules prepared from dry aqueous extract of Lantana camara 500mg/kg and Lactose 100mg/kg. The capsules were prescribed to 20 patients suffering from 1st and 2nd degree hemorrhoids, under the supervision of Chief medical officer, Department of shalya tantra Govt. Ayurvedic hospital, Nagpur.

 

Fig.4: Effect of treatment on itching

 

Fig.5: Effect of treatment on constipation

 

Hemorrhoids/ piles can be described as masses or clumps ("cushions") of tissue within the anal canal that contains blood vessels and their surrounding, supporting tissue made up of muscle and elastic fibers.6 Selection of patients was done according to their age, sex and dietary habits. Capsules were prescribed for one month, once in a day and assessment of subjective and objective parameters were done. The parameters considered were pain, itching, constipation and bleeding.

 

Observations and Statistical analysis:

Results were presented as means ± S.E.M for entire experiment. Statistical significance among groups was determined by ANOVA.7 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

This study demonstrates for the first time the analgesic, anti – inflammatory and anti – hemorrhoidal activity of Lantana camara. This species is currently used in folk medicine for cancer and tumors. Fig.1 shows the effect of aqueous extracts of Lantana camara on the latency time for licking of the paws to thermal stimulation. Results revealed that the rats showed significant effect when treated with Lantana camara (500mg/kg) in which the leaking time was increased after treatment. Fig. 2 showed the results of anti–inflammatory activity indicating that the oedema, which is induced by carrageenan in rat, paw increases in control group. Treatment with aqueous extract of Lantana camara (300mg/kg) exhibited mild decrease in paw volume but when treated with 500mg/kg, showed significant decrease.

 

Table 5: Effect of treatment on constipation

Follow up  weeks

Group

Mean (X)

Standard Deviation (SD)

1st week

2.435

0.507

2nd week

1.522

0.511

3rd week

0.609

0.409

4th  week

0.09

0.02

 

Table 6: Effect of treatment on bleeding

Follow up  weeks

Group

Mean (X)

Standard Deviation (SD)

1st week

2.140

0.541

2nd week

1.123

0.338

3rd week

0.483

0.317

4th  week

0.04

0.01

 

Results of anti – hemorrhoidal activity revealed significant reduction in signs and symptoms of acute hemorrhoidal attack (viz. Bleeding, Anal discomfort, anal discharge, swelling and pain at prolapse and proctitis) at last week i.e. on 28th day was found treated in patients. No significant adverse effects were reported. All these parameters are shown in fig 3, 4,5and 6.

 

Fig.6: Effect of treatment on bleeding

 

CONCLUSION:

The study concludes that the aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves in capsule (500mg) (Solid) dosage form is highly effective and safe for the treatment of hemorrhoids.  It is clearly proved that the aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves has promising analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hemorrhoidal activity.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Kirtikar, K.R and Basu, B.D., Indian Medical Plants 2nd Ed. published by  Mahendra, B.S, 1996, 1914.

2.      Johanson, J.F. and Sonnenberg, A., J. Gastroenterology., 1990;98:380.

3.      Johanson, J.F. and Sonnenberg, A., J. Gastroenterology., 1994; 89:1981.

4.      Warwick, R., Grays Anatomy, 35 th Ed., Churchill Living stone, 1987; 345.

5.      Garg, S.K.,. Shah, M.A., and. Garg, K. M., Indian J. Exp. Biology. 1997, 35, 1315.            

6.      Mohamed, S., Kamel, A., Xiaoyang L. and James S., J. Pharm. Biology., 1999, 37, 63.

7.      www. veego. com/ ugo basile plethysmometer. htm.

 

 

 

Received on 22.01.2009  Modified on 16.04.2009

Accepted on 23.04.2009  © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2(2): April.-June.2009,;Page 378-381