Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alternanthera Sessilis (L.)

 

S Prakash Rao1*, Sushil Bhargava1 and Surendra Saraf 2

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur 493111 (C.G.)

2Department of Biotechnology, Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur 493111 (C.G.)

* Corresponding Author E-mail: spr_pharma@yahoo.co.in

 

ABSTRACT

The plant Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Ex DC belonging to the family Amaranthaceae was selected for the project, on the basis of ethnobotanical information, and easy availability. The diuretic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract was evaluated by lipschitz et.al method. The parameters taken for each individual rat were body weight total urine volume urine concentrations of Na+, Cl-, Na+ and K+ concentration were measured by flame photometry and Cl- concentrations was estimated titrimetrically. Frusemide was used as reference drug while normal saline solution was used as control. Hydroalcoholic extracts caused marked increase in Na+ Cl-, and decrease K+ level in urine.

 

KEY WORDS Diuretic, Hydroalcoholic, Urine

 

INTRODUCTION:

Elimination of larger amount of urine than normal is called diuresis and compounds, which promote flow of urine, are termed as diuretic. The plant Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Ex DC belonging to the family Amaranthaceae was selected for its diuretic activity, on the basis of ethnobotanical information, and easy availability1,2.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The species for the proposed study i.e. Altternanthera sessilis(L)R.Br.Ex.DC leaves were collected in month of July 2006 from the Korba, Chattishgarh. First the leaves were washed with water and dried it in sunlight for one hour and then it was dried in shade. By the help of wood grinder the dried leaves was powdered and was passed through the sieve no. 60. Course powder of the leaf (500 gm) was packed well in soxhlet apparatus and was subjected for continuous hot extraction with hydroethanol until the completion of the extraction. The extract was filtered while hot and the resultant extract was distilled in vacuum under reduced pressure in order to remove the solvent completely. Dried and kept in a dessicator till experiment.

 

Animals Used

Wistar albino rats (150-180gms) were selected for these studies. Six rats were taken for each group. The rats were used after an acclimatization period of 7 days to the laboratory environment.

 

Acute Oral Toxicity Studies

LD50 of Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Ex DC was done as per OECD guidelines (Revised draft 423). The drug Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Ex DC falls under class 4 (LD50> 2000mg/Kg). The animals did not show any signs of acute toxicity and behavioral changes3.

 

Diuretic Activity

The method of lipschitz et.al was employed for the assessment of diuretic activity4. Groups of 6 albino rats, each weighing 150-170gms were fasted and deprived of water for 18 hours prior to the experiments. On the day of the experiment all the animals were given normal saline orally 25ml/kg body weight. Group I served as the negative control, which received only normal saline 25ml/kg. Group II received furosemide 20 mg/kg as reference diuretic and Group III and Group IV received alcohol extract 100mg/kg & 200mg/kg respectively. In prior to the administration of normal saline. Immediately after dosing, the animals were placed in the metabolic cages specially designed to separate urine and feaces and kept at room temperature of 25 +0.5C. The urine was collected in measuring cylinder up to 5 hours after dosing. During this period no water or flood was made available to the animals. The total volume of urine collected was measured for the control and treated groups. The parameters taken for each individual rat were body weight total urine volume urine concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, Na+ and K+ concentration were measured by flame photometry and Cl- concentrations was estimated titrimetrically. All the values are expressed as mean + standard error of the man. Test significant was analyzed by student t test4.

 

TABLE 1 -Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic + water leaf extract of Alternanthera Sessilis (L.)

Treatment

Dose

Urine volume in (ml)

Na+ MEq/Lt

K+ MEq/Lt

Cl -MEq/Lt

Control (Normal saline)

25 ml/kg

2.52 + 0.09

96.2+ 0.83

95.7 + 0.94

88.2 + 2.3

Alcohol Extract

100 mg/kg

2.61 + 0.06

120.3 + 4.20

78.7 + 4.1*

85.6 + 6.15

Alcohol Extract

200 mg/Kg

2.87 + 0.15*

122.8+8.2*

84.1+5.4*

90.6+7.3*

Furosemide

20mg/kg

3.55+0.09*

134.8+0.19

90.6 + 1.49*

92.0+1.35*

P < 0.01 Vs Control by students t test Values are man + S.E., n = 6

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Diuretic effect of extract is given in Table 1. On the basis of above results, it can be concluded in diuretic activity plant extract shows significant (p < .01) activity when compared with control animal. Na+ ion concentration increase and k+ concentration decreases when compared with control.

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Indian Pharmacopoeia 1996, Government of India, ministry of Health and family welfare, Delhi, pp 75-81, 947-949, A 53-54, A70-71, A 74, A105,

2.     Indian Medicinal plants a compendium of 500 species, Vol. 1, orient longman (1995). pp 118-119.

3.     Donald J Ecobicson. The basis of toxicity testing 1997 2nd edition CRC Press, 43

4.     Ghosh, T, Dash G.K, Bose A, Panda BB. Indian. J. Nat. Prod, 20 (4) 2005.

5.     Salvamani P, Latha S, Sen JD. Indian J. Nat. Prod. 20, (4), 24, 2005

 

Received on 24.07.2008 Modified on 22.08.2008

Accepted on 29.08.2008 RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(3): July-Sept. 2008; Page 290-291