Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (Otc) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X and new age Indian women

 

Dr. G. Rajini1, Dr. G. Madhumita2

1Professor and HOD- MBA (Integrated), School of Management Studies, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies (VISTAS) Pallavaram, Chennai

2Associate Professor, School of Management Studies, Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies, (VISTAS) Pallavaram, Chennai

*Corresponding Author E-mail: dr.rajini.g@gmail.com, madhusai2@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Generic Medical stores are opened in India by as Government Initiative called JAN-AUSHADHI in order to bring down the Health Care Budget of every Citizen .At this point of time a study regarding the influence of Purchase of Over the counter Medicines (OTC) by any individual has to be probed in .The major difference between these generic stores and the conventional retailers is the brand name of the medicine and the company’s brand image .Thereby this study is to envisage about the contribution of Brand Loyalty, Brand Image, Brand Resonance, Brand Trust with the Brand Experience. A conceptual regression model was designed and named as Role of brands for purchasing OTC brands Among Indian Women. The study highlights different generation and confines to Gen X and Gen X and New Age Indian Women who fall between 28 to 53 years with women across various professions such as advocates, doctors, academicians, engineering and technocrats, administrators, media/entertainment, entrepreneur and others. Around 736 questionnaires were collected in and around Urban Chennai, Semi Urban, Neyveli, Rural Soolurpet, Tirupur of India. The finest predicted relationship amid independent variables and the dependent variable was done by means of Multiple Regression by using Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS (21.0). The result shows that the brand experience of Gen X and New Age Indian Women professionals is not significant with the brand loyalty, brand image but they are significant with brand resonance, brand trust variables. Meanwhile Brand loyalty has a significant relationship with brand resonance, brand trust and not significant with brand image. This research shall errand the policy makers and pharmaceutical marketers to recognize regarding the brand experience of Gen X and New Age Indian Women.

 

KEYWORDS: OTC Medicines, Brand experience, brand loyalty, brand image, brand trust, Gen X and New Age Indian Women.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Griffin (2004), states that the thought of obtaining medication for self-treatment is not novel; it is obvious throughout the antiquity that individuals have continuously pursued methods for treating numerous ailments with or without referring

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X and New Age Indian Women

 

 

a doctor or other healthcare expert. Jones (2008) and Royal Pharmaceutical Society (2010), claimed that these medicine that might be bought without a prescription, although some are essential to be acquired through a drugstore.

 

Utermohlen (1999) refers that medicines encompass an essential element of existence for numerous citizens. Medicine dole out to assist populace when they are unwell, they permit them to exist longer in addition to better life. By means of quickly mounting research and technology, medications are additional helpful, and new ones persist to be exposed. All medications, whether agreed by a doctor or bought over-the counter, are competent of detrimental side effect. The direction of the pharmacy goods is a matter of anxiety mainly about Indian Women particularly between the age of 28 to 53 years who are named as Gen X and New Age. This age group was selected based on the criteria like purchasing power and general health requirement based on age of women. Behavioural study (Rajini. G and Krithika. M, 2017) based on Gender is a classic example to precisely know about the purchase experience of Individual. The classification of generation based on Age is listed in Table No.1:


 

Table No.1 Classification of Generation

List of Generation

Starting Period

End period

Youngest Age Today*

Oldest Age Today*

The Silent Generation

1925

1945

73

93

Baby Boomer Generation

1946

1964

54

72

Generation X (Baby Bust)

1965

1979

39

53

Xennials -

1975

1985

33

43

New Age

1970

1990

28

48

Generation Y - The

1980

1994

24

38

Millennials - Gen Next

 

 

 

 

iGen / Gen Z

1995

2012

6

23

Gen Alpha

2013

2025

1

5

 


OVER THE COUNTER MEDICINES (OTC):

But Over-the-counter medications, also recognized as non-prescription drugs, that can be procured without prescription from registered medical practitioner. Mayur Mohan Amonkar (1996), states that Over-the-counter or non-prescription drugs are solitary the most imperative and easily obtainable by public wellbeing aids for the treatment of general and mild conditions or symptomatic relief. These drugs are principally used for the demeanour of the wellbeing that can be self-medicated. OTC drugs are prescribed to be harmless for self-medication by government regulatory associations. According to Food and drug administration (FDA), there are surplus 300,000 OTC drug product in the market. Where several familiar applications of OTC drugs are for aches, pains, itches, cough and Cold, Acne treatment to Weight control drugs. The OTC drugs insist for cold, cough and allergy will engage the traditional seasonal drift, lashing a stable development during the estimated period.

 

In addition to the above Over-the-counter Medicines can be narrated as follows:

·      Can be easily bought in stores.

·      Are harmonized through OTC drug.

 

Ingredients, doses, formulations, and labelling. Over-the-counter goods that are in substantiation with the existing monographs do not necessitate FDA review for marketing. Are used to self-treat minor symptoms or conditions that do not necessitate the direction of a physician.

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X and New Age Indian Women

 

In the precedent, pharmaceutical manufacturers relied on physicians and pharmacists to offer the drug information to the patients. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that are obtainable for sale directly to a consumer. Thereby the criteria which influences the purchase of such a essential commodity has to be probed in.

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

To analyse the relationship between brand trust, brand image, brand resonance, brand loyalty and brand experiences of OTC Medicines

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The research methodology for the study is descriptive in nature. The research proposal was presented before the VISTAS Institutional Ethics Committee with the research Instrument and approved before the study. Informed consent was also sought from the respondents before data collection.

 

Population:

Any Gen X and New Age Indian Women using OTC medicines (Infinite Population).

 

Sampling Location:

Pharmacy outlets, Shopping Malls, Clinic/Hospital, Ladies Hostels and few companies.

 

Sample Size: 736

 

Sampling Element (Unit of Analysis):

New Age (18 to 53 yrs) literate Indian Women based on the classification of residence Urban, Semi Urban, Rural area

 

Sampling Technique:

Stratified Random Sampling (Infinite Population). questionnaire the questionnaire was designed in 3 parts

 

Section A:

The primary section of the instrument had a forced choice of questions about the consumers’ demographic profile, like age, profession, income, occupational sector, marital status, types of family, etc.

 

Section B:

Second section comprised on common health problem that consumers face, types of pharmacy outlet they purchase, OTC medicine purchased for Fever: Pain sprays; Antacid; cough and cold; Multivitamin; Band aid; iron supplement; calcium supplement purchase without prescriptions, Overall Factors influenced purchase OTC medicines, awareness of pharmaceuticals brands. Then comes the variables which measures personal reasons, marketing factors, social factors, media influence for purchase of branded OTC medicines. Section C: Categorized into Brand Trust (items 1 to 7), Brand Image (8 to 13), Brand Resonance (items 14 to 20), Brand Loyalty (items 22 to 28), Brand Experiences (item 29 to 38)

 

Data was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS.21.0) and the reliability of the questionnaire checked. Multiple regression analysis was done (Rajini. G, 2018), which is enter method, wherein all independent variables were analysed at a stretch with the dependent variable.

 

DATA ANAYLSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS:

To unite the independent and dependent variable a Multiple Regression was performed. There are 3 hypothesis are mounted, they are;

 

H1: Brand Experience depends on Brand Loyalty, Brand Image, Brand Resonance, Brand Trust H2: Brand Loyalty depends on Brand Resonance, Brand Image and Brand Trust

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over The Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X And New Age Indian Women

 


 

Table No.2   Results of Regression Analysis

Dependent variable

Independent variable

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

F

Sig.

 

Constant

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Loyalty,

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Experience

Brand Image,

0.761a

0.579

0.568

 

 

 

Brand Resonance,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Trust

 

 

 

53.992

0.000

 

Constant

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Loyalty

Brand Resonance, Brand

0.619a

0.384

0.373

34.459

0.000a

 

Image, Brand Trust

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Complied by the author

 


INTERPRETATIONS:

From the above Table No: 2 where brand experience is the dependent variable, provides inference that the ability of prediction for model was articulated by R value 0.761 and R2value 0.579 which shows 57.9% of variance exist in the dependent variable is from the independent variables. F- value is 53.992 showing that there exists a relationship between Brand Loyalty, Brand Image, Brand Resonance, Brand Trust with Brand Experience. From above Table No.2 the regression was tested by using T-test and the coefficient was used to compare as well as resolve the percentage of variation that exist in the dependent variable. F –value was used to know the significance of the F distribution. The ability of prediction of the regression model Table was expressed by value 0.568 which shows 56.8% of the variance of from the independent variable. The p-value is 0.000 which is <0.05 showing a significant relationship between Brand Resonance, Brand Image, Brand Trust, Brand Loyalty with Brand Experience. Hence from the above test we conclude that Brand Loyalty, Brand Resonance, Brand Image and Brand Trust Significantly Predict Brand Experience.

 

 

From the above Table where brand loyalty is the dependent variable, table no. 2 provides inference that the ability of prediction for model was articulated by R value 0.619 and R2value 0.384 which displays 38.4% of variance exist in the dependent variable is from the independent variables. F- value is 34.459 showing that there exists a relationship between Brand Image, Brand Resonance, Brand Trust with Brand Loyalty. From above Table NO. 2 the regression was tested by using T-test and the coefficient was used to compare as well as resolve the percentage of variation that exists in the dependent variable. F –value was used to know the significance of the F distribution. The ability of prediction of the model Summary Table was expressed by value 0.373 which shows 37.3% of the variance of from the independent variable. The p-value is 0.000 which is <0.05 viewing a significant relationship between Brand Resonance, Brand Image, Brand Trust with Brand Loyalty. Hence from the above test we conclude that Brand Resonance, Brand Image and Brand Trust Significantly Predict Brand Loyalty.

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over The Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X And New Age Indian Women


Table No. 3 Coefficients of the Model

Dependent

Independent Variable

Unstandardized Coefficient

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig

Variable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

Std. Error

Beta

 

 

Brand Experience

(Constant)

-0.867

2.391

 

-0.363

0.717

 

Brand Trust

0.671

0.137

0.381

4.891

0.000

 

Brand Image

0.152

0.128

0.078

1.194

0.234

 

0.438

0.094

0.329

4.683

0.000

 

Brand Resonance

 

0.137

0.083

0.108

1.641

00.103

 

Brand Loyalty

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Loyalty

(Constant)

0.722

2.176

 

0.332

0.740

Brand Trust

0.544

0.119

0.400

4.560

0.000

 

Brand Image

-0.030

0.116

-0.020

-0.263

0.793

 

Brand Resonance

0.317

0.082

0.301

3.854

0.000

Source: Complied by the Author

 


From the above Table No.3 it is inferred that the beta value is 0.671 for variable 1 (Brand Trust) and 0.438 for variable 2 (Brand Resonance) and 0.152 for variable 3 (Brand Image) and 0.137 for variable 4 (Brand Loyalty). There is a significant relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Experience (P value = 0.000). There is a significant relationship between Brand Resonance and Brand Experience (P value=0.000). There is no significant relationship found Brand Image and Brand Experience Since the P value is >0.05 Which is 0.234. There is no significant relationship between Brand Loyalty and Brand Experience Since the P value is >0.05 Which is 0.103. There by the final regression equation is derived by the incorporating the coefficients as follows:

 

Brand Experience= -0.867+0.671(Brand Trust) +0.438(Brand Resonance) +0.137(Brand Loyalty) + 0.152(Brand Image)

 

From the above Table No.3, it is inferred that the beta value is 0.544 for variable 1 (Brand Trust) and 0.317 for variable 2 (Brand Resonance) and -0.030 for variable 3 (Brand Image). There is a significant relationship between Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty (P value = 0.000). There is a significant relationship between Brand Resonance and Brand Loyalty (P value= 0.000). There is no significant relationship found Brand Image and Brand Loyalty Since the P value is >0.05 Which is 0.793. Thereby the final regression equation is derived by the incorporating the coefficients as follows:

Brand Loyalty=0.722+0.544(Brand Trust) +.317(Brand Resonance)-0.030(Brand Image)

 

Table No.4 Consolidated output of Multiple Regression

DV

BL

BI

BR

BT

BE

MODEL FIT

IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Experience

NS

NS

S

S

-

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Loyalty

-

NS

S

S

-

Yes

Source: Complied by the Author S- Significant, NS-Not Significant

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X and New Age Indian Women

 

Equation derived by Multiple Regression is as follows

 

Brand Experience = -0.867+0.671 (Brand Trust)+ 0.438 (Brand Resonance) +0.137 (Brand Loyalty)+152 (Brand Image)

Brand Loyalty = 0.722+0.544 (Brand Trust)+0.317 (Brand Resonance) -0.030 (Brand Image)

 

From the above equation it is incurred that the Brand trust and brand resonance are the most vital variables significantly contributing towards the brand experience of New Age Indian women. (Table No. 3)

 

CONCLUSION:

The study is descriptive in nature, two Multiple Regression were computed, first with brand experience as a dependent variable with four independent variable like Brand Loyalty, Brand Image, Brand Resonance and Brand Trust, The results revealed that there is significant relationship between the brand resonance and brand trust and not significant with brand loyalty and brand image, second regression were computed keeping brand loyalty as a dependent variable with Brand Resonance, Brand Image and Brand Trust, the results revealed that there is no significant relationship with brand image and significant relationship with brand resonance and brand image. The study clearly discusses that the Gen X and New Age Indian Women purchase OTC medicines based on Brand Trust, Brand Resonance relate to other variables, where as they prefer to buy.

 

According to the research consumers are conscious of brand experience and mostly they desire to treat common ailments like headache, fever, and cold and cough. Managers of pharmaceutical companies can focus more on brand trust and brand resonance. If brand loyalty rises persistently then it requires an enormous progress on purchase of OTC brand, endorsing the status with the increase in revenue which can always be a huge plus for the organization. The consumers are more cognizant of the OTC product, they enjoy a good market share and likewise in prospect future numbers of drugs are successful off-patent, so OTC market is going to see cumulative market share. Government should propaganda good quality information concerning about OTC medicines and their practice can be also elevated. However, people have to be rightly educated regarding the way of self medication.

 

The growing self medications determinate necessitate more and enhanced education about the brand experience to purchase OTC medicines to Gen X and Gen X and New Age Indian Women. Thereby Government should propaganda by Customer Relationship Management (Rajini. G and Divyasree Veeramani Sangameshwari, 2016) about the generic medicine stores Jan-Aushadhi and embark it as a trusted Brand in tune to the expectation of the purchaser.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The authors assures that there is no conflict of Interest between any parties

 

SOURCE OF FUNDING:

Vels Seed Grant was awarded to selected faculty by Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies (VISTAS) for this research.

 

ETHICAL CLEARANCE:

Proposal presented before VISTAS Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) and clearance obtained Vide letter No. VISTAS-SPS/IEC/IV/2018/08. IEC Registration No: ECR/288/Indt/TN/2018 and File no: ECR/1644/VELS/Indt/TN, Issued by Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X and New Age Indian Women

 

 

Chart No.1 Multiple Regression

 

Chart No. 2 Multiple Regression

 

Vital Factors Influencing Purchase of Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines: Brand Experiences of Gen X And New Age Indian Women

 

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Received on 31.01.2019          Modified on 20.03.2019

Accepted on 10.04.2019        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(6): 2682-2686.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00448.7