A Comparative Study on the Biological Activities of Medicinal Plants Leaf Extracts Belongs to the Family Fabaceae

 

Saranya Shankar1, Mythili Sathiavelu2*

1Assistant Professor (Senior), School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology,

Vellore – 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

2School of Bioscience and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632014,

Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: smythili@vit.ac.in

 

ABSTRACT:

The present study aims to analyze the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of three different plant leaf extracts such as Pithecellobium dulce, Sesbania grandiflora and Lablab purpureus belongs to the family fabaceae. Qualitative phytochemical screening of different plants leaf powder confirmed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids and anthraquinone glycosides. Methanolic leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora plant possess highest total phenolic content of about 14.21 ± 0.011mg of GAE/g of extract whereas, Petroleum ether leaf extract of Lablab purpureus plant exhibits highest total phenolic content of about 11.45 ± 0.002 mg of GAE/g of extract. In DPPH assay, methanol leaf crude extract demonstrated 86±1.77% antioxidant activity in Sesbania grandiflora at 150µg/ml concentration. Whereas petroleum ether leaf crude extract demonstrated 82±1.66% antioxidant activity in Lablab purpureus at 150µg/ml concentration and in reducing power assay, both the methanol and petroleum ether leaf crude extract demonstrated 85±1.73% and 88±1.92% antioxidant activity in Sesbania grandiflora at the same concentration 150µg/ml. In egg albumin denaturation assay, both the methanol and petroleum ether leaf crude extract exhibited 78±1.38% and 81±1.79% anti-inflammatory activity in Lablab purpureus at the same 300µg/ml concentration. When compared to all plants extracts in antibacterial activity methanol leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora demonstrated clear zone of inhibition against test microorganisms against five studied pathogens. When compared to all plants extracts in antifungal activity methanol leaf extract of  Sesbania grandiflora demonstrated clear zone of inhibition against test pathogen Aspergillus niger. Results of this study conclude that the three different medicinal plant leaf extracts contains significant potential for pharmaceutical applications.

 

KEYWORDS: Medicinal plants, Phytochemicals, Antioxidant activity, Antibacterial activity, Antifungal activity, In vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Traditional medicine is considered as the most inexpensive and simply available source for treating various diseases in the primary health care system of poor communities1.

 

 

 

 

 

The term ‘medicinal plant’ includes variety of plants that are widely used in herbalism and some of these plants possess medicinal properties. The ingredients present in the medicinal plants are rich in the medicinal property so they can be used in drug development and synthesis2. The plant family Fabaceae or Leguminosae includes legumes and the plant is known as pea or bean family. Among largest families of flowering plant, leguminosae is third largest group of plants having 18,000 species and are classified in about 650 genera. The prevalent and largest genera are Astragalus that is over 2,400 species, Acacia that is over 950 species, and Indigofera which are about 700 species, Crotalaria is about 700 species, and Mimosa is around 500 species which comprises about 9.4% of all flowering plant species. In Africa and America the family fabaceae are located in dry forests and in tropical rainforests3, 4.

 

Pithecellobium dulce seed is a small to medium sized, evergreen, spiny tree, native of tropical America, Mexico and cultivated throughout the plains of India and it is recognized as madras or manila tamarind5. The plant Pithecellobium dulce leaves can be used as plasters for pain and venereal sores. Filtered juice of leaves are used for the treatment of leprosy, earache, intestinal disorder, toothache and indigestion6. Pithecellobium dulce seed extract is used to clean ulcers and the leaves are also used to avoid miscarriage7. Sesbania grandiflora is known as agati or the hummingbird tree. It is a small and fast growing tree located in India, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia and Myanmar. Their parts such as flowers and leaves are consumed due to its healthy values. The leaves are bitter in taste that contains high content vitamin C, saponin, sterols, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin8. It also used for various properties such as expectorant, thermogenic, anthelmintic, antipyretic, astringent, styptic, demulcent, bitter, alexeteric and constipating in ancient times9.

 

Lablab purpureus is usually named as Dolichos bean and it is broadly located in tropical and subtropical regions and also widely used as grain legume, vegetable and animal fodder.  Among all cultivated crops it is consider as the best traditional crops and also grown as a field crop in India, cultivated in various countries such as Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh10. Diseases such as diarrhoea, rheumatism, sunstroke and cholera can be treated by Lablab purpureus seeds and the flowers are used for the treatment of uterus inflammation flow and the fruit pods juice is also used to prevent inflamed throats and ears and also used as digestive, astringent, stomachic, to eject worms11. Based on these literature survey these plants were chosen as the plant of interest for this analysis. The present study investigated the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of three different plant leaves and also the phytochemical composition of the extract by the biochemical reaction.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Collection of plant materials:

Fresh leaves of the plants Pithecellobium dulce, Sesbania grandiflora and Lablab purpureus were collected in the sterile bag from Vellore, Tamil Nadu. The leaves were washed thoroughly, initially with running tap water and then with double distilled water to remove any debris or dust particles. Further the leaves were shade dried for 3-4 days at room temperature. After drying, the leaves were ground into a fine powder using an electric blender.

Preparation of leaf extracts:

In a conical flask, Around 15 grams of each plant leaf powder were thoroughly dissolved in 200ml of different solvents namely methanol and petroleum ether. Then the flask were sealed with parafilm and kept in a shaker for 48 hrs at 120 rpm. After 48 hrs the plant extracts were filtered through Whatmann No.1 filter paper. The solvents were concentrated by using a rotary vacuum evaporator. About 3 to 5 grams of crude extract was obtained in each extract and these crude extracts were used for further studies12.

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS:

Using standard protocol, phytochemicals such as phenol, alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin sterol and triterpenes and anthraquinone glycoside were analyzed for three different medicinal plant leaf powder13,14.

 

Water extract:

To the 14ml of distilled water, 1gram of dried leaf powder and using mantle the content was boiled for 5mins. Then the content was filtered using Whatman No: 1 filter paper to obtain water extract.

 

Phenol test:

Add few drops of Fecl3 to 1ml of filtrate in a test tube, the appearance of dark green color indicates the presence of phenol.

 

Saponin test:

To the test tube, add 2ml of distilled water along with the small amount of crude extract and shaken vigorously. the presence of saponin can be confirmed by the formation of stable foam.

 

Tannin test:

Add few drops of 2% Fecl3 to the test tube containing filtrate.The presence of condensed tannin was confirmed by the appearance of green color and blue color indicates the presence of hydrolyzable tannin.

 

Acid extract:

To the beaker,Take 1g of dried plant leaf powder and add 5ml of concentrated HCl, then the content was mixed gently and allow it to stand for 20 mins. Using Whatman filter paper the acid extract was filtered.

 

Flavonoid test:

To the test tube add 2ml of 2% sodium hydroxide solution and a small amount of filtrate, on the addition few drops of diluted acid, the yellow colored solution turned to colorless, this shows the presence of flavonoid.

 

Alcohol extract:

To the 8ml of methanol, 1grams of dried leaf powder were added and allowed to stand for 30 mins then the content were filtered using Whatman filter paper. Then the filtrate was kept on the mantel to get evaporates and finally, resuspended by adding 3ml of chloroform to it.

 

Alkaloid test:

Dragendorff’s reagent was sprayed over the filter paper containing few drops of alcohol extract. The presence of alkaloid was confirmed by the appearance of reddish brown color.

 

Sterol and triterpenes test:

Few drops of concentrated H2SO4 and acetic anhydride was added to the sidewise of the test tube containing 2ml of alcoholic extract. A positive result can be confirmed by the appearance of reddish brown color.

 

Anthraquinone glycoside test:

In a test tube add 1ml of ammonia along with 2 ml of alcohol extract and shaken vigorously, the presence of Anthraquinone glycoside was indicated by the appearance of green color in the bottom and reddish color in the aqueous layer.

 

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT:

Folin-Ciocalteu Photometric method was carried out to determine total phenol content of different plant leaf extracts using gallic acid as a standard. Each extract (1mg/ml) of 100µl were mixed with 500µl of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in a test tube and shaken. Then 1.5ml of saturated sodium carbonate was added to the mixture. To dilute the solution the flask was filled with the 5ml volume of distilled water.Then the samples were incubated for 2hours at room temperature, the absorbance of the developed colour was recorded at 765 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer.  Total phenolics content was expressed as mg Gallic acid Equivalents15.

 

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY:

DPPH free radical scavenging assay:

The antioxidant activity of the different leaf crude extracts was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable 1, 1- diphenyl 2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) free radical according to the standard procedure. The DPPH (4mg) was prepared in 100ml of methanol. The methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of different plant leaves were subject to determine their radical scavenging ability. The crude extracts of plant were dissolved with methanol to prepare stock solution (1mg /ml concentration). Then 2ml of 0.1mM DPPH solution was mixed with 1ml of different plant crude extracts of varying concentration (50, 100, 150μg/ml). Gallic acid was prepared at different concentration (25, 50, 100μg/ml) and used as reference standard. Mixer of 1ml methanol and 2ml DPPH solution was used as control. The reaction was carried out in triplicates and the mixture were shaken well, incubated in dark condition for 45mins.The absorbance of the resulting solution was read at 517nm against the blank (containing solvent instead of extract) in a UV-Visible spectrophotometer16.

 

The ability of DPPH radical scavenging activity was calculated by using the following equation:

 

Inhibition % = A control-A extract/A control×100

 

Where

A control - Absorbance of the control

A extract - Absorbance of the sample

 

Reducing power assay:

The reducing power assay was performed for each plant leaf crude extracts (1 mg/mL) at different concentration (50, 100, 150μg/ml) and it was first mixed with 2.5 mL of phosphate buffer and 2.5ml of potassium ferricyanide. After incubation in water bath for 20 min at 50°C, add 2.5 ml of 10% trichloro acetic acid (TCA) to the mixture and then centrifugation was done at 3000 rpm for 10 min. subsequently, 2.5 ml of the upper layer of solution was recovered and mixed with 2.5 mL distilled water and 0.5 mL 0.1% ferric chloride, and the absorbance of the resulting solution was read at 700 nm. Control was prepared by adding all the solution with the absence of the sample. Standard was prepared at different concentration (25, 50,100μg/ml) using Gallic acid. If the absorbance value of the reaction mixture increases it indicates increases in the reducing power17.

 

The inhibition percentage of reducing power was calculated by using the following equation

 

Percentage of inhibition = Abs control-Abs extract/Abs control×100

 

Where

Abs control - Absorbance of the control

Abs extract - Absorbance of the sample

 

IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY:

Egg albumin denaturation method:

The anti-inflammatory activity of three different plant leaf extracts was determined using egg albumin denaturation method. Different concentration of the methanol and petroleum ether extracts (100, 200, 300 µg/ml) was prepared. The 5ml of test solution consists of 2.8 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 6.4), 0.2 ml of fresh hen’s egg albumin and 2 ml of prepared plant leaf extracts. Equal volume of De-ionized distilled water were used as a control. Then the solutions were incubated at (37°C ± 2) in a BOD incubator (Lab-line Technologies) for 15 min and the solutions heated at70°C for 5 min. After cooling, their absorbance was measured at 660 nm. Acetyl salicylic Acid (Aspirin) was used as a standard at the varying concentration of 100, 200, 300μg/ml were treated similarly for determination of absorbance18.

 

Calculating formula for the % inhibition of protein denaturation by the following equation.

 

% Inhibition = Abs control – Abs test/Abs control * 100

 

Where,

Abs control = Absorbance of the control

Abs test = Absorbance of the test sample

 

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY:

Agar well diffusion method:

The antibacterial activity of the different plant leaf crude extracts was evaluated using Agar Well Diffusion Method. The nutrient broth was used to prepare stock culture and inoculated with bacteria such as Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687), Proteus mirabilis (MTCC 3310), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 0430), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7028) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), then it was incubated at 37oc for 24 hrs. Using sterile cotton swab the diluted inoculums of bacterial cultures were spread over the surface of the Muller Hinton Agar plates. The wells were punched into the plates with the help of sterilized cork borer. Then the respective wells were filled with 100μl of extracts at different concentrations (25,50and 100 mg/ml) and these plates were incubated overnight at 37◦C. After the incubation period, the antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition (mm). Streptomycin disc was used as a positive control19.

 

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY:

Agar well diffusion method:

Agar well diffusion method was carried out to determine antifungal activity. Three different plant leaf extracts such as Methanol and petroleum ether were tested against fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus niger (MTCC 3323) and Aspergillus flavus (MTCC 2799). These pathogens were cultured and maintained in PDA (Hi media). Using sterile cotton swab the fungal pathogens were spread over the surface of the prepared PDA media plates. Sterile cork borer were used to make wells and to these wells different concentration of leaf extracts were added. The plates were incubated at 27oC. The cultured plates were observed throughout the media plate for the zone of inhibition after 48-72 hours indicates the presence of antifungal activity. The zone of inhibition was measured. Fluconazole disc was used as a positive control20.

 

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

Medicinal plant contains unique compounds that are used for curing several diseases. Because of this nature the medicinal plants plays an important role in preparing of new drugs21. A natural product such as dyes and flavors are produced by the plants belongs to fabaceae at wide variety and also contains huge significance in medicinal purpose22. Objective of this study were to analyze the phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of three different plant leaf extracts.

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS:

The powdered leaves of three different medicinal plants were subjected to the phytochemical analysis to identify the phytochemical constituents. All the leaves of the chosen plants indicates presences of Phenols, alkaloid, Tannins, Saponins and Flavonoids.Sterols and Triperpenes were only present in Sesbania grandiflora. Anthroquinone glycosides were not present in Lablab purpureus. Results of qualitative analysis of three different plants leaves match with the study by Mukesh kumar et al (2016), Sarasu Packiyalakshmi et al (2016) and Soetan (2012) 23,24,11. Phytochemical study of the different plant leaf extracts showed the existence of a significant amount of phenolic compounds that ensure us the plants possesses aforesaid pharmacological potentials. The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis of three different plant leaf powder are shown in table 1.

 

Table.1: Qualitative phytochemical screening of three different plant leaf powder.

Phytochemicals

Inference

Pithecellobium dulce

Sesbania grandiflora

Lablab purpureus

Phenol

+

+

+

Saponins

+

+

+

Tannins

+

+

+

Flavonoids

+

+

+

Alkaloids

+

+

+

Sterols, Triperpenes

-

+

-

Anthroquinone glycosides

+

+

-

 

TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT:

The total phenolic contents present in the methanol and petroleum extract was estimated using the Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent.There was a wide range of total phenolic concentrations were found in the three different plant leaf extracts. The highest concentration of phenol (14.21 ± 0.011 mg of GAE/g of extract) was observed in methanol extract of Sesbania grandiflora whereas, the highest concentration of phenol (11.45 ± 0.002 mg of GAE/g of extract) was observed in the petroleum ether extract of Lablab purpureus. The results of Total phenol content of three different plant leaf extracts are shown in table 2.

 

Tabe.2:Total phenolic content of three different plant leaf extracts.

Plants

 

Methanol extract (1mg/ml)

Petroleum ether extract (1mg/ml)

Pithecellobium dulce

13.95 ± 0.010

11.42 ± 0.004

Sesbania grandiflora

14.21 ± 0.011

11.1 ± 0.002

Lablab purpureus

10.98 ± 0.001

11.45 ± 0.002

 

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY:

DPPH free radical scavenging assay:

Free radical such as the superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, DPPH has the ability of being uneffected by certain side reactions, such as metal ion chelation and enzyme inhibition brought about by various additives and it also considered to be the most accurate screening method used to evaluate the antioxidant activity25. The presence of antioxidant activity in the leaf crude extract of two different solvent of pithecellobium dulce, Sesbania grandiflora and Lablab purpureus with DPPH decolorized the visible purple color by measuring the changes in absorbance at 517 nm. Methanolic and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants exhibited significant antioxidant property by gradual increase in the absorbance value as the concentration increases. The methanolic leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora showed a high scavenging activity of about 86±1.77 % at 150µg/ml. Perumal Siddhuraju et al suggested that Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract possess significant antioxidant activity27.whereas, Lablab purpureus possess least scavenging activity of 71±1.08% at 150µg/ml concentration. In the petroleum ether leaf extract of Lablab purpureus showed the potential antioxidant activity of about 82±1.66 % at 150µg/ml whereas, Sesbania grandiflora showed least scavenging activity of 60±0.85 % at 150µg/ml concentration. Ascorbic acid was taken as standard showing 91±0.56 % antioxidant activity. Percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity of methanolic and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plant and ascorbic acid is shown in figure 1 and 2.

 

 

Figure.1: DPPH free radical scavenging assay of methanol leaf extract of three different Plant

Note: Pd- Pithecellobium dulce; Sg- Sesbania grandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

Figure.2: DPPH free radical scavenging assay of petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plant

Note: Pd- Pithecellobium dulce; Sg- Sesbania grandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

Reducing power assay:

In the reducing power assay, the oxidation form of iron (Fe+3) in ferric chloride to ferrous (Fe+2) are converted by the several antioxidant compounds26. The reducing power of the methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants were found to be excellent and steadily increase in direct proportion to the increasing concentrations of the extract. The reducing power of a 150 μg/ml concentration of Sesbania grandiflora methanol leaf extract is found to be 85±1.73 % reducing power activity whereas, Pithecellobium dulce possess least reducing power activity of 59±1.39 % at 150µg/ml concentration. In petroleum ether leaf extract also possesses significant reducing power activity of Sesbania grandiflora is found to be 88±1.92 % at 150μg/ml whereas, Pithecellobium dulce possess least reducing power activity of 80±1.58 % at 150µg/ml concentration. The standard ascorbic acid showing 94±0.81 % antioxidant activity is shown figure 3 and 4.

 

 

Figure.3: Reducing power assay of methanol leaf extract of three different plant

Note: Pd- Pithecellobium dulce, Sg- Sesbania grandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

Figure.4: Reducing power assay of petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants

Note: Pd- Pithecellobium dulce; Sg- Sesbania grandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORYACTIVITY:

Egg albumin denaturation method:

Egg albumin denaturation method is used to estimate the in vitro anti-Inflammatory activity of methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants. Both the methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts exhibited maximum inhibition of albumin denaturation in the same plant named Lablab purpureus showed the strongest anti -inflammatory activity of about 78±1.38 % and 81±1.79% in the same concentration 300 μg/mL whereas Pithecellobium dulce showed least anti- inflammatory activity in both methanol and petroleum ether extracts of about 39±1.52 % and 70±1 % at 300 μg/mL concentration. According to this previous report, ethanolic extract of the Pithecellobium dulce leaves suggested potential anti-inflammatory activity of about 62.80% compared with the standard drug Aspirin28.was taken as standard showing 91±0.56 % anti-inflammatory activity. The results of methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants are graphically represented in figure 5 and 6.

 

 

Figure.5: Anti-Inflammatory activity of methanol leaf extract of three different plant

Note: Pd- Pithecellobium dulce; Sg- Sesbania grandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

 

Figure.6: Anti-Inflammatory activity of petroleum leaf extract of three different plant

Note: Pd- Pithecellobiumdulce; Sg- Sesbaniagrandiflora and Lp- Lablab purpureus

 

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY:

Agar well diffusion method:

Antibacterial activity was performed for the both methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants. Both the extracts showed significant activity against test organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Comparative studies on the zone of inhibition recorded showed that the methanolic leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora has higher zone of inhibition for most of the bacteria studied except Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella pneumonia at 25µg/ml concentration than the other plants. Whereas Comparative studies on the zone of inhibition observed that the petroleum ether leaf extract of Lablab purpureus has slightly higher zone of inhibition for most of the bacteria studied except Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniaeat 25µg/ml concentration than the other plants. Streptomycin was used as standard drugs showing antibacterial activity. Both the methanol and petroleum ether extract showed significant activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria match with the study by Sarasu Packiyalakshmi et al (2016) and Vineela Chadalavada et al (2015)24,29. The results of methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants are shown in table 3 and 4.

 

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY:

Agar well diffusion method:

Antifungal activity was performed for the both methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants. Both the extracts showed significant activity against test pathogens such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Comparative studies on the zone of inhibition recorded showed that the methanolic leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora has higher zone of inhibition of about 3.2cm against Aspergillus niger except Aspergillus flavus than the other plants. Pithecellobium dulce methanol leaf extract exhibits significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger [23] whereas Comparative studies on the zone of inhibition observed showed that the petroleum ether leaf extract showed no activity against the studied fungal pathogens (A. niger and A. flavus). Mukesh Kumar etal (2012) suggests Fluconazole was used as standard drugs showing antifungal activity. The results of methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of three different plants are shown in table 5. Observed zone of inhibition against various test pathogens are shown in figure 7.

 


 

Table.3: Zone of inhibition of methanol leaf extract at various concentrations

Plant name

Concentration (µg/ml)

Organisms

(Zone of inhibition are measured in mm)

Staphylococcus aureus

(MTCC-3160)

Proteus mirabilis (MTCC-3310)

Bacillus cereus (MTCC-0430)

Escherichia coli (MTCC-1687)

Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC-7028)

Pithecellobium dulce

25

-

-

-

-

-

50

12

12

-

10

-

100

14

13

13

12

13

Sesbania grandiflora

25

12

15

-

10

-

50

16

19

14

13

11

100

21

20

20

15

13

Lablab purpureus

25

-

10

-

12

-

50

14

12

15

18

-

100

20

19

22

23

21

Streptomycin(10mg)

17

25

16

25

20

 

Table.4: Zone of inhibition of petroleum ether leaf extract at various concentrations

Plant name

Concentration (µg/ml)

Organisms

(zone of inhibition are measured in mm)

Staphylococcus aureus

(MTCC-3160)

Proteus mirabilis (MTCC-3310)

Bacillus cereus (MTCC-0430)

Escherichia coli (MTCC-1687)

Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC-7028)

Pithecellobium dulce

25

12

-

-

-

-

50

13

11

-

10

11

100

20

13

13

14

13

Sesbania grandiflora

25

-

10

-

-

-

50

-

11

12

-

-

100

14

13

13

12

13

Lablab purpureus

25

-

10

13

-

-

50

13

13

14

13

10

100

19

18

15

22

14

Streptomycin(10mg)

19

20

16

25

21



Table.5: Zone of inhibition of three different leaf extracts at various concentrations

Pathogens

Extracts

Pithecellobium dulce

Sesbania grandiflora

Lablab purpureus

Concentration(100mg/ml) (Zone of inhibition are measured in mm)

Aspergillus niger

(MTCC-3323)

Met

13

32

8

Pet

-

-

-

Aspergillus flavus

(MTCC-2799)

Met

-

-

-

Pet

-

-

-

 


 

Figure.7: Antifungal activity of three different plant leaf extracts

Note: A- Sesbania grandiflora; B- Lablab purpureus; C- Pithecellobium dulce and D- Control

CONCLUSION:

The present study concludes that the three different medicinal plant leaf extracts belongs to the family fabaceae exhibited potential antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity due to the presence of bioactive natural compounds. Furthermore, active crude extracts are being subjected to purification process for identification of active compounds which may provide a better source for developing new pharmacological agents. These active natural compounds have a potential application as antioxidants, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents in many pharmaceutical products.

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

The authors thank VIT for providing 'VIT SEED GRANT' for carrying out this research work.

 

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Received on 31.10.2018         Modified on 11.11.2018

Accepted on 21.12.2018      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(3): 1129-1136.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00186.0