Evaluation of the acute Toxicity of Profenofos and its Effect on the Behavioral Changes in Freshwater Fish Labeo rohita

 

B. Nagaraju1*, K. Sunitha1, A. Anitha2, and V.V. Rathnamma2

1Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522510, A.P, India.

2Department of Zoology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur-522510, A.P, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: nagaraju.bantu301@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT:

Profenofos is an organophosphate insecticide using for the control of insects. Particularly it is being used to control Lepidopteron mites on cotton, maize, sugar beet, soyabeans, potatoes, vegetables, tobacco and other crops. It is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Profenofos may reach surface waters through spray drift or surface runoff. The 96hrs LC50 value of profenofos was determined using fingerlings of common edible freshwater fish Labeo rohita with a the length of the fish 6±8 cm, Average body weight 6.5± 7.5 gm at temperature 28±2oC .Calculated LC50 values was 100 µg /L for the assay, the behavioral changes of fish exposed to profenofos including loss of balance, jerky movements were observed.

 

KEYWORDS: Profenofos, Labeo rohita, LC50  and Behavioral studies


 

INTRODUCTION:

Profenofos has been classified as a moderately hazardous and toxic class II pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and it has a moderate order of acute toxicity following on oral and dermal administration. Profenofos is extremely toxic to fish and invertebrates. The acute toxic action of profenofos is the inhibition of the acetyl choline esterase activity resulting in toxicity also in humans. It affects not only the target animals but also non-target animals including human beings. The health problems in human individuals occupationally exposed to the pesticides in pesticide production industries (Bhalli et al., 2006) and cotton picking women (Ali et al., 2008) were observed. Profenofos (CAS Number - 41198-08-7, Chemical name: O-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl) O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate, IUPAC Name: O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate. Chemical formula: C11H15BrClO3PS. It is slightly soluble in water and miscible in organic solvents, its half life in soil is about one week (Tomlin 1994).This property of profenofos  makes a better choice for spray when compared to other chemical class pesticides. Profenofos is of mid range in risk of assessment among the 12 top priority pesticides of cotton (Batley and Peterson 1992). Profenofos is highly toxic to aquatic animals like fishes and Zooplankton.

 

Different fish species including Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss has 80 µg/l and Blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus, is of 300 µg/l (Tomlin 1994).The common edible fish Labeo rohita was used as an experimental animal for the estimation of LC50 values; it is widely spread and cultured fish.

 

The objective of this current study was to estimate the acute toxicity of profenofos on fresh water edible fish Labeo rohita; it is abundantly used as food source in India. The fish was mainly grown in the rivers, canals, ponds connected to the fields. When profenofos was sprayed it enters the water through runoff, drifts and leaching.  So it is essential to determine how it affects non target aquatic organisms.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The common edible fish Labeo rohita is obtained from the local fish farm at Nandivelugu, Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh .The fish were brought to the laboratory by using glass aquaria with high oxygen concentration and transferred in to the water tubs for acclimatization. The length of the fish 6±8 cm, Average body weight 6.5± 7.5 gm. The fish Labeo rohita were acclimatized to the laboratory conditions at 28±2oC. The fish were fed daily with commercial fish pellets and allowed to acclimate for 15 days. Water was renewed every day to provide freshwater, rich in oxygen. If mortality exceeds more than 5% during the acclimatization, the entire batch of fish was discarded. The hydrographic conditions of water used for acclimatization and to conduct the experiments were shown. The containers used for the test media of ten liter capacity, where in each test five containers were used and in each container ten fish were maintained. Basing on the pilot experiment, the experiments were conducted to determine the toxicity in different concentrations of the pesticide Profenofos 50% E.C 24 hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs in static system to calculate the LC50  values.

 

Physico-chemical analysis of water used for experiments Turbidity–8 Silica units, Electrical conductivity at 28 oC -816 micro ohms/cm, Alkalinity-1, Phenolphthalein-Nil, Methylorange-472, Total hardness (as CaCO3) - 232, Non carbonate hardness (as CaCO3)-Nil, Calcium hardness (As N) -Nil, Sulphate (as SO4) -Trace, Chloride (as Cl)- 40, Fluoride (as Fl)- 1.8, Iron (as Fe) -Nil , Dissolved oxygen- 8-10 ppm, Temperature- 28±2 oC.

 

Acute toxicity tests were performed for determination of 96hrs LC50 values, Labeo rohita fish were used with each of the concentrations, and tested with the control group. Fish mortalities were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs and fish status and behavior along with water temperature, pH, and oxygen saturation were carefully monitored throughout the test periods. The test was performed statically for 96 hrs. The observed LC50 values of Labeo rohita, for profenofos static tests for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs were shown in Table (I) .The response was initiated at the threshold dose when increase in concentration of dose and exposure time. That was reported on the basic concept of the dose-response relation-ship. According to Finney’s probit analysis Finney, (1971) as recorded by Roberts and Boyce, (1972) was followed to calculate the LC50 values.

                                      

Table (1)- The LC50 values of Profenofos for the fish Labeo rohita at 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs in static test.

24 hrs

20.76411

48 hrs

19.93355

72 hrs

19.10299

96 hrs

18.27242

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the present investigation the test organism, Labeo rohita has shown differential toxicity with the function of the period. An increase in the number of the mortalities with increase in concentration of the toxicity of profenofos was observed and has been summarized in Fig.1.  There was no mortality at low concentration and as well as control group. During the same time the highest mortalities was observed at the concentration 125µg/l of profenofos insecticide. The estimated 96h LC50 value for common edible fresh water fish was 100µg/l as shown in the table (II) and table (III).The tables also showing the other estimated LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs respectively.

Fig.1. % mortalities of Labeo rohita exposed to different dose of profenofos during 96hrs


 

Table II Observed % mortality of fish Labeo rohita   exposed to Profenofos in 24,48,72,96 hrs.

24hrs

48hrs

72hrs

96hrs

Dose

in µg /l

Log conc.

% of mortality

Dose

in µg /l

Log conc

% of mortality

Dose

in µg /l

Log conc.

%of mortality

Dose

in µg /l

Log conc

%of mortality

95

1.9777

10%

90

1.9542

10%

85

1.9294

10%

80

1.9030

10%

100

2.0

20%

95

1.9777

20%

90

1.9542

20%

85

1.9294

20%

105

2.0211

30%

100

2.0

30%

95

1.9777

30%

90

1.9542

30%

110

2.0413

40%

105

2.0211

40%

100

2.0

40%

95

1.9777

40%

115

2.0606

50%

110

2.0413

50%

105

2.0211

50%

100

2.0

50%

120

2.0791

60%

115

2.0606

60%

110

2.0413

60%

105

2.0211

60%

125

2.0969

70%

120

2.0791

70%

115

2.0606

70%

110

2.0413

70%

130

2.1139

80%

125

2.0969

80%

120

2.0791

80%

115

2.0606

80%

135

2.1303

90%

130

2.1139

90%

125

2.0969

90%

120

2.0791

90%

140

2.1461

100%

135

2.1303

100%

130

2.1139

100%

125

2.0969

100%

 

Table III Observed % mortality of fish Labeo rohita   exposed to Profenofos in 96 hrs

S.no.

Dose in µg /l

Log conc.

No. of exposed fish

Live

Died

% of mortality

Probit mortality

1

80

 1.9030

10

9

1

10

3.72

2

85

1.9294

10

8

2

20

4.16

3

90

1.9542

10

7

3

30

4.48

4

95

1.9777

10

6

4

40

4.75

5

100

2

10

5

5

50

5.00

6

105

2.0211

10

4

6

60

5.52

7

110

2.0413

10

3

7

70

5.52

8

115

2.0606

10

2

8

80

5.84

9

120

2.0791

10

1

9

90

6.28

10

125

2.0969

10

0

10

100

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LC50 values for profenofos in rainbow trout Melanotaenia duboulayi are (900 µg/l) and Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus; (272µg/l) take place. In this experiment observed that the fish Labeo rohita is less resistant to an organophosphate insecticide profenofos. Alterations in the levels in tissues of fresh water Labeo rohita exposed to Fenvalerate, is observed by (David et al., 2003). Comparison with the different organophosphate insecticides on the common carp, it was found that Diazinon, An organophosphate has a LC50 value of 153ug/L to the larvae of common carp (Aydin and Koprucu (2005).

 

The behavioral changes were also seen in the present investigation, the surfacing phenomenon of fish observed under profenofos exposure. The control group shows the normal behavior during the whole experiment and also normal responses was observed at the low concentration of the insecticide 0.20 µg/l was applied there is no variation  takes place at control group and low insecticide concentration applied groups.

 

The increase ventilation rate by rapid, repeated opening closing mouth and opercula coverings accompanied by partially extended fins (coughing) was observed. This could be due to clearance of the accumulated mucus debris in the gill region for proper breathing. The hyper excitability of the fish invariably in the lethal and sub lethal exposure of profenofos may be probably due to the hindrance in the functioning of the enzyme AchE in relation to nervous system as suggested by many authors (Shahul Hameed and Vadamalai, 1989).  Fish in the experimental group applied with highest concentration of the pesticide were lying laterally at bottom with loss of balance, swimming down in a spiral movement with jerks. Thus the behavioral changes of the fish under insecticidal stress may have deleterious effects of making the fish fall an easy prey in their natural habitat and may affect the stability of the population reported by (Jayantharao 1998; Scholz et al., 2000; Venkata rathnamma et al., 2008),

 

In the present study of test organism showed normal behavior in control group but jerky movements, hyper secretion of mucus, opening mouth for gasping, losing scales, hyperactivity were observed in increase the insecticidal concentration. Behavioral characteristics are obviously sensitive indicators of toxicant effect. It is necessary, to select behavioral indices for monitoring that relates to the organisms behavior in the field in order to derive a more accurate assessment of the hazards that a contaminant may pose in natural systems. Insecticide toxicity is influenced by physical factors like temperature and biological factors like size, Nutritional status and Species specificity; For observing of experiments and all author report ,the present study show that profenofos  is very high toxic to the common edible fish Labeo rohita as compared to the other fish species.

 

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Received on 14.12.2012       Modified on 01.01.2013

Accepted on 13.01.2013      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(2): Feb. 2013; Page 184-186