Comparative Studies on Anthelmintic Activity of Clerodendrum infortunatum and Vitex Negundo

 

VS Bhutada*, AJ Modi, SS Khadabadi, IA Farooqui and Deore SL

Govt. College of Pharmacy, Kathora Naka, Amravati-444604. (M.S.), INDIA.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:  bhaijibhutada@gmail.com, khadabadi@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Ethanolic extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum and Vitex negundo were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma.Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both plant extracts but Clerodendrum infortunatum shows more activity as compared to Vitex negundo.

 

KEYWORDS: Clerodendrum infortunatum, Vitex negundo, Anthelmintic activity, Piperazine citrate.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.  (Verbanaceae: Bhat in Hindi, Ghentu in Bengali, Bhania in Oriya) is a terrestrial shrub having square, blackish stem and simple, opposite, decussate, petiole, exstipulate, coriacious, hairy leaves with a disagreeable odour. 1, 2 The plant is common throughout the plains of India. Various parts of the plant have been used by tribes in colic, scorpion string, snake bite, tumour and certain skin diseases. 3, 4 also used in Indian folk medicine as in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma, fever, diseases of the blood, inflammation, burning sensation and epilepsy. 7, 8, 9 Fresh juice of the leaves has been used as vermifuge and in treatment of malaria. 4, 5 Clerodendrum infortunatum leaves on preliminary chemical analysis are found to contain saponin, clerodin (a bitter diterpene) 4, 6 and some enzymes. Leaves also contain a fixed oil which consists of Glycerides of Lenoleic, oleic, stearic and lignoceric acid.9 Previous phytochemical investigation of the plant revealed the presence of alkyl sterols and 2,-(3, 4-dehydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-α-2 rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeoyl) glycopyranoside (acteoside) in this plant.10, 11

 

Vitex negundo (Verbanaceae) commonly known as Nirgundi. It is a large, aromatic shrub, sometimes a small slender tree found throughout the greater part of the India. It contains various chemical classes such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates. Traditionally leaves reported to posses tranquilizing effect, insecticidal properties and laid over grain to ward off insects.12-14

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The methodology adopted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of two plants viz Clerodendrum infortunatum and Vitex negundo here under.

 

Plant Material:

Leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum and roots of Vitex negundo were collected from local area of Amaravati city (M.S.).The collected material was authenticated by Dr.Prabha Y. Bhogaoankar, Taxonomist, Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amaravati.

 

Worm Collection and Authentication:

The Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma (Annelida) was collected from Agriculture college of Shivaji Science, Amaravati and authenticated from the Department of Zoology, Sant Gadge Baba Amaravati University, Amaravati.

 

Extract Preparation:

The collected materials were washed thoroughly in water, chopped, air dried for a week at 35-40oC and pulverized in electric grinder and exhaustively extracted successively in soxhlet apparatus, using petroleum ether and ethanol respectively. The extracts were concentrated under reduced pressure and were then made to powder.

 

Anthelmintic Activity:

The anthelmintic activity was performed according to the method of Ghosh et al.15on adult Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma as it has anatomical and physiological Resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. Eighteen groups of approximately equalized Indian earthworms consisting of six earthworms in each group were released into 50 ml of desired formulation.

 


Table -1Anthelmintic activity of Clerodendrum infortunatum and Vitex negundo

Plant extract

Conc. (mg/ml)

Time taken for paralysis(min)

Time taken for death of worms (min)

Clerodendrum infortunatum

10

20 ± 0.12

55 ± 0.96

25

11 ± 0.67

37± 0.11

50

5 ± 0.5

20 ± 0.55

Vitex negundo

10

140 ± 2

610 ± 6.2

25

91.65 ± 1.6

465.75 ± 5.3

50

39.65 ± 3.7

322.5 ± 5.5

Piperazine citrate

10

23.36 ± 1.5

62 ± 6.8

All values represent Mean +SD; n= 6 in each group.

 

 


Three groups were prepared as control i.e. distilled water, reference i.e. piperazine citrate (10mg/ml) and third of extracts (10, 25, 50 mg/ml).Observations were made for the time taken to paralyse or death of individual worms. Paralysis was said to occur when the worms do not receive Even in normal saline. Death was concluded when the worms lose their motility followed with fading away of their body colour. Results are shown in table-1.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Preliminary phytochemical screening has shown the presence of saponin, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, proteins, in ethanolic extracts of plants. From the results it is observed that Clerodendrum infortunatum shown potent anthelmintic activity while the Vitex negundo has taken long time for death of worms. Clerodendrum infortunatum is showing paralysis within 5-20 min while death is comparable with that of piperazine citrate death of worms was observed at 64 min. Vitex negundo was taken 35-140 min to bring paralysis and 4-8hrs. To bring death of worms. Future scope involves need of isolation of phytoconstituents responsible for activity.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are thankful to staff, Govt. College of Pharmacy, Amaravati (M.S.) for providing necessary facilities and support to carry out this work.

 

REFERENCES:

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Received on 03.10.2009       Modified on 26.11.2009

Accepted on 20.12.2009      © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(2): April- June 2010; Page 629-630